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Wspomóż pracę swojego mózgu

Waży średnio 1 300g, co stanowi około 2% masy ciała człowieka. Mimo niewielkiej wagi, zużywa blisko ¼ energii dostarczanej organizmowi wraz z pożywieniem. Chociaż w 80% jest zbudowany z wody, mieści w sobie ok. 100 miliardów neuronów. Pozwalają one na odbiór około 100 megabajtów informacji na sekundę. O czym mowa? O centrum dowodzenia ludzkiego organizmu, czyli o mózgu! Jak wspomóc jego działanie i co on właściwie lubi?

Ludzki mózg to genialny instrument, który pozwala na odbieranie, przetwarzanie oraz generowanie bodźców. Kieruje on również wszystkimi procesami zachodzącymi w organizmie człowieka. Warto zatem na co dzień wspomagać pracę naszego najważniejszego organu.

  1. Prawidłowa dieta

Po pierwsze, powinniśmy zadbać o odpowiednie „nakarmienie” naszego mózgu, ponieważ dzięki zbilansowanej diecie może pracować efektywniej, szybciej i sprawniej. Ośrodkowy układ nerwowy, w skład którego wchodzi mózg, do odżywiania się wykorzystuje tlen oraz blisko połowę glukozy krążącej we krwi. Nie oznacza to jednak, że powinniśmy spożywać duże ilości produktów bogatych w cukry proste. Kluczowe m.in. dla mózgu jest natomiast utrzymanie stałego poziomu glukozy we krwi, co zapewni nam regularne spożywanie posiłków bazujących na produktach zbożowych, warzywach i owocach. – Doefektywnego funkcjonowania ludzki mózg potrzebuje magnezu, który odgrywa kluczową rolę w przewodnictwie nerwowym. Niezmiernie ważne są również dobroczynne kwasy tłuszczowe z rodziny Omega-3. To one przyczyniają się do rozwoju i utrzymania zdolności poznawczych, lepszego zapamiętywania, chronią nas przed procesami starzenia mózgu, a także pomagają w zwiększeniu objętości istoty szarej, szczególnie w regionach odpowiedzialnych za odczuwanie szczęścia – tłumaczy Katarzyna Zadka, specjalista ds. żywienia programu edukacyjnego „Żyj smacznie i zdrowo”. „Karmiąc” swój mózg warto pamiętać także o produktach zawierających żelazo, będące składnikiem hemoglobiny transportującej tlen do wszystkich komórek naszego ciała, w tym mózgu. Niedobór żelaza może doprowadzić do rozwinięcia się anemii, a w konsekwencji do niedotlenienia komórek organizmu (w tym komórek mózgu). Niewystarczające dotlenienie to zaś zmniejszenie sprawności fizycznej i umysłowej, osłabienie koncentracji oraz problemy z pamięcią. Spożywając świeże warzywa, owoce i zioła dostarczymy sobie cennych antyoksydantów (przeciwutleniaczy), które neutralizują wolne rodniki, negatywnie wpływające na komórki ciała, także nerwowe, a ponadto wspomagają zdolność zapamiętywania i uczenia się. Warzywa i owoce to także źródło kwasu foliowego koniecznego do prawidłowego rozwoju mózgu człowieka już w łonie matki. To dlatego kobietom w ciąży, a także wszystkim kobietom w wieku rozrodczym zalecana jest dodatkowa suplementacja tego składnika. Pomocna w zachowaniu dłuższej sprawności mózgu jest także lecytyna, którą znajdziemy m.in. w jajach. Powinniśmy pamiętać również o odpowiednim nawodnieniu organizmu. Nawet najmniejsze odwodnienie może przyczynić się do obniżenia efektywności mózgu.

  1. Aktywność fizyczna

Nasz mózg oprócz odpowiedniej diety do poprawnego funkcjonowania potrzebuje także ruchu. Istnieją badania, sugerujące, że pod wpływem aktywności ruchowej w mózgu tworzą się nowe komórki nerwowe, co pozytywnie wpływa na zdolność uczenia się i zapamiętywania. Takie założenie mogą potwierdzać badania na modelu zwierzęcym przeprowadzone przez Timothego Bussey z brytyjskiego Cambridge University[1]. Uczony wykonał serię doświadczeń na myszach podzielonych na dwie grupy: z dostępem do atrakcji umożliwiających aktywność fizyczną zwierząt oraz bez. Po pewnym czasie Timothy Bussey wyświetlał gryzoniom dwa identyczne kwadraty i zaczął je uczyć, według schematu: jeśli mysz dotknęła lewej figury, dostawała słodki przysmak, jeśli prawej, pozostawała bez nagrody. Otrzymał wyniki sugerujące, że gryzonie z grupy, która wcześniej miała możliwość korzystania z atrakcji ruchowych uczyły się szybciej, niż nieruszające się myszy.

  1. Sen, drzemka i odpoczynek

Nie jest prawdą, że mózg człowieka podczas snu nie pracuje. W trakcie odpoczynku „centrum dowodzenia” naszego organizmu nie tylko przetwarza wspomnienia, ale również porządkuje wszystkie zebrane dane, pozbywając się tych niepotrzebnych. Takie „porządkowanie” tego organu pozytywnie wpływa na kreatywne myślenie oraz sprawia, iż posiadamy zdolność kojarzenia faktów. Odpowiednia ilość snu ma zatem duże znaczenie dla prawidłowego funkcjonowania człowieka. Osoby, które gorzej sypiają mogą mieć duże problemy z efektywnością intelektualną, a w przypadku dłuższej bezsenności, dochodzi również do osłabienia refleksu, problemów z pamięcią, czy trudności w podejmowaniu decyzji. Brak odpowiedniej regeneracji mózgu pozbawia człowieka również przyjemności i ogólnej radości z życia. Warto, zatem odpowiednio się wysypiać, a gdy w ciągu dnia nasz organizm domaga się drzemki – nie powinniśmy jej sobie odmawiać, jeśli mamy taką możliwość. Kilkanaście minut snu pozytywnie wpłynie na nasze samopoczucie (obniża się poziom kortyzolu w organizmie, czyli hormonu stresu) oraz poprawiają się procesy pamięciowe. Warto pamiętać jednak o tym, by popołudniowy odpoczynek nie trwał dłużej niż 30 minut. Po tym czasie z fazy REM (moment, w której mózg tworzy marzenia senne) wchodzimy w etap głębokiego snu. Tak, więc gdy obudzimy się po drzemce dłuższej niż 30 minut, będziemy bardzo zmęczeni i powrót do optymalnej formy zajmie nam nawet kilkanaście minut. Krótszy sen sprawi, że obudzimy się pełni energii i gotowi do pracy. 

  1. Nauka, łamigłówki i… muzyka!

Tak jak ćwiczenia fizyczne kształtują naszą sylwetkę, tak samo odpowiedni czas poświecony na poprawianie sprawności naszego mózgu pozytywnie wpływa na niektóre jego rejony. Udowodniono, że np. nauka języków obcych zmienia mózg strukturalnie i funkcjonalnie[2]. Zwiększa się, bowiem liczba połączeń między komórkami nerwowymi oraz między różnymi regionami mózgu. Dzięki temu nawet odległe ośrodki mogą się ze sobą znakomicie kontaktować, co wpływa na szybszą i bardziej efektywną pracę całego mózgu. Zatem – im więcej się uczymy i trenujemy nasz umysł, tym więcej komórek nerwowych oraz połączeń między nimi. Po intensywnej nauce natomiast – powinniśmy odpocząć, ponieważ wspomoże to pracę naczelnego organu naszego dowodzenia. Dobrą formą relaksu będzie słuchanie muzyki. Powszechne przekonanie o pozytywnym oddziaływaniu ulubionych melodii na organizm człowieka znalazło odzwierciedlenie w badaniach. Wykazano w nich, że bodźce słuchowe dynamizują impulsację neuronów w korze mózgowej. Dzięki temu w organizmie zachodzą pozytywne zmiany, takie jak: poprawa procesów pamięciowych, wzrost kreatywności, harmonizowanie napięcia mięśniowego, opóźnienie objawów zmęczenia oraz poprawa koordynacji ruchowej.

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