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Choroby i dolegliwości

Czym jest wirus grypy?

Często słyszymy, szczególnie w okresie jesienno-zimowym, o wzroście zachorowań na grypę. Mówi się również o nielicznych przypadkach śmiertelnych i o groźnych powikłaniach, które może powodować ta choroba. Przyjrzyjmy się więc wirusowi, o którym jest głośno na całym świecie, a jego niektóre mutacje wywołały nie tylko epidemie, ale i pandemie.

Trzy typy wirusa grypy

Grypa jest chorobą wirusową, wywoływaną przez wirusy, które możemy podzielić na trzy grupy: wirus typu A, B i C. Wirus typu A i C występuje zarówno u ludzi, jak i u zwierząt (choć C tylko u świń), a wirus typy B występuje tylko u ludzi. O ile wirusy typu B i C mają małe zdolności do mutowania, przez co zdecydowanie łatwiej z nimi walczyć, o tyle wirus A mutuje bardzo szybko. To właśnie w tej grupie jest najgroźniejszy obecnie wirus tzw. świńskiej grypy, oznaczany skrótem szczepu AH1N1.

Wirus świńskiej grypy był przyczyną pandemii z roku 2009, gdy za jego sprawą zmarły tysiące ludzi na całym świecie. Z tej samej rodziny pochodzili poprzedni sprawcy pandemii, m.in. słynnej pandemii hiszpanki z 1918 r., kiedy to w wyniku grypy zmarło niemal 100 mln ludzi.

Możliwe powikłania

Wirus grypy powoduje błyskawiczny rozwój choroby i bardzo szybko mutuje. Jak już wspomniano, w mutacjach przodują wirusy typu A, co znacząco utrudnia przeciwdziałanie zachorowaniom na grypę np. za pomocą szczepień. Szybki rozwój choroby i częste bagatelizowanie objawów grypy, powodują liczne powikłania pogrypowe.

Najczęściej występują powikłania ze strony układu oddechowego. Nieleczona grypa może spowodować zapalenie oskrzeli, płuc, krtani czy zatok. Dość często pojawiają się również powikłania ze strony układu krążenia, takie jak zapalenie mięśnia sercowego, osierdzia, a nawet nagły zgon sercowy. Zainfekowane mogą być również inne organy, czego objawem może być zapalenie ucha środkowego, zapalenie opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych czy ostra niewydolność nerek.

Takie powikłania bywają jednak nie tylko skutkiem działania samego wirusa grypy, ale i innych patogenów, które „lubią” jego towarzystwo. Należą do nich paciorkowce, gronkowiec złocisty czy bakteria Haemophilus influenzae.

Chcesz wiedzieć więcej? Koniecznie przeczytaj artykuł „Czy wiesz, czym jest wirus grypy?” na stronie http://febrisan.pl/porady/wiesz-czym-wirus-grypy/

 

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