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Przyczyny powstawania trudności z oddawaniem moczu lub stolca

Problemy z wypróżnianiem i oddawaniem moczu należą do dolegliwości wstydliwych. Bardzo wiele osób woli ignorować swoje dolegliwości, niż udać się z nimi do odpowiedniego lekarza. Warto wiedzieć, że oddawanie moczu i stolca jest niezwykle ważną potrzebą fizjologiczną – w ich trakcie nasz organizm oczyszcza się z zalegających w nim niepotrzebnych lub szkodliwych produktów przemiany materii. Wszelkie ich zaburzenia świadczyć mogą o poważnych chorobach lub stać się ich przyczyną.

Przyczyny problemów z oddawaniem moczu

W zależności od takich czynników jak ilość przyjętych płynów, temperatura otoczenia, wiek oraz waga pacjenta, ilość wydalanego w ciągu doby moczu waha się od 0,6 do 2,5 litra. Do najczęstszych zaburzeń oddawania moczu zaliczamy:

  • Częstomocz – częste oddawanie moczu w małych ilościach
  • Skąpomocz – zmniejszenie ilości wydalanego moczu poniżej 0,4-0,5 litra na dobę
  • Bezmocz – zmniejszenie ilości wydalanego moczu poniżej 0,1 litra na dobę.

Czym mogą być spowodowane problemy z oddawaniem moczu? U panów najczęstszą przyczyną jest przerost prostaty, pojawiający się w pewnym wieku u większości z nich. Prostata, zwana również gruczołem krokowym lub sterczem, w wyniku powiększenia zaciska się na cewce moczowej, powodując problem z oddawaniem moczu. W formie łagodnej przerost jest naturalnym zjawiskiem, choć może on również być objawem choroby gruczołu, na przykład jego zapalenia o podłożu bakteryjnym. W przypadku gdy powiększenie jest znaczne, dochodzi do ostrego zatrzymania moczu, objawiającego się niemożnością opróżnienia pęcherza mimo poczucia silnego parcia. Stan ten może doprowadzić do niewydolności nerek oraz zatrucia toksynami zawartymi w moczu. Do innych częstych przyczyn problemów z oddawaniem moczu należy bakteryjne zapalenie cewki moczowej oraz cukrzyca.

Przyczyny zaparć

Zaparciami nazywamy problemy z oddawaniem stolca – pacjent w tym stanie wypróżnia się mniej niż trzy razy w ciągu tygodnia. Zaparcia mogą pojawiać się u każdego, kobiet i mężczyzn w każdym wieku, a nawet dzieci. Występują wbrew pozorom bardzo często, zgodnie ze statystykami w krajach zachodniej Europy cierpi na nie nawet co druga kobieta i co czwarty mężczyzna. Do najczęstszych przyczyn należą:

  • Niewłaściwa dieta – zbyt mało płynów oraz błonnika pokarmowego, spożywanie ciężkostrawnych pokarmów
  • Brak aktywności fizycznej – siedzący tryb życia i mało ruchu
  • Wstrzymywanie odruchu parcia na stolec – powstrzymywanie wypróżniania prowadzi do osłabienia mięśni odbytu, które odpowiadają za wydalanie stola
  • Zażywanie leków – długotrwałe zażywanie leków takich jak neuroleptyki, diuretyki, suplementy żelaza, inhibitory MAO może prowadzić do powstania zaparć
  • Choroby – niektóre choroby, takie jak cukrzyca, mocznica, neuropatia, niedoczynność tarczycy i nadczynność tarczycy oraz żylaki czy pęknięcia odbytu mogą prowadzić do osłabienia mięśni układu pokarmowego.

Należy pamiętać, że przedłużające się zaparcia stanowią bardzo duży dyskomfort oraz zagrożenie dla naszego zdrowia. W wielu przypadkach można im zaradzić zmieniając dietę, warto jednak korzystać przy tym z pomocy lekarskiej. Specjalistycznej usługi medyczne z zakresu diagnozowania i leczenia przyczyn problemów z oddawaniem moczu i stolca znajdziemy w ofercie NZOZ Euro-Klinika.

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