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Co warto wiedzieć o szczepionkach przeciwko HPV?

Doctor making an injection to a patient
Doctor making an injection to a patient

Nosicielkami wirusa HPV, odpowiadającego za raka szyjki macicy, są trzy na cztery polskie kobiety. Codziennie wykrywa się 10 przypadków, a tylko połowę z nich daje się wyleczyć. Nowotwór szyjki macicy jest złośliwy i śmiertelnie niebezpieczny. Istnieje jednak szczepionka. Czy warto ją wykonać? Jak działa i kto może z niej skorzystać? Poznaj szczepionkę przeciwko HPV.

Co to jest wirus brodawczaka ludzkiego (HPV)?

Wirus brodawczaka ludzkiego występuje w wielu rodzajach, z których niektóre wywołują nowotwory nabłonka. Przenosi się drogą płciową. Może być obecny nie tylko w narządach płciowych, ale też np. w odbycie, dlatego seks analny zwiększa ryzyko zakażenia. Prezerwatywa nie jest skuteczną formą zabezpieczenia się przed brodawczakiem. Najczęściej HPV nie wywołuje żadnych objawów, szczególnie w początkowej fazie. Łatwo go zatem przeoczyć. Może dać o sobie znać nawet po kilkunastu latach, choć część zakażonych może przeżyć z nim całe życie w błogiej nieświadomości. Jeżeli już daje objawy, są to: nietypowe nawracające infekcje, upławy i plamienia poza miesiączką. Nosicielki wirusa stanowią aż 75–80% wszystkich aktywnych seksualnie kobiet, ale z miliona zarażonych zaledwie 1500 zachoruje na raka. Czy szczepienie ma zatem sens?

Szczepionka przeciw HPV – dla kogo, po co?

Trzeba wiedzieć, że szczepionka przeciwko HPV, który odpowiada za 90% przypadków raka szyjki macicy, jest stosunkowo nowa. Możemy z niej korzystać od 2006 roku, a pełne informacje o jej nieprzewidywanych skutkach uzyskamy najszybciej w roku 2018. Na podstawie obecnie dostępnych informacji można wnioskować, że jest bezpieczna, a powikłania to rzadkość, jednak każde użycie nie do końca znanego preparatu wiąże się z ryzykiem. Dlatego nieodzowna jest konsultacja ginekologiczna.

Szczepionkę podaje się w trzech etapach. Niestety, póki co nie jest ona refundowana, a każdy etap to koszt ok. 400 zł. Przed zaszczepieniem należy wykonać cytologię. Badanie nie jest konieczne w przypadku dziewic. Przeciwwskazaniami do wykonania szczepionki są: ciąża, ostre infekcje wirusowe, uczulenie na którykolwiek ze składników preparatu. Obecnie dysponujemy szczepionką, która zapobiega w 100% skutkom działalności wirusa w naszym ustroju. Jest skuteczna przez około 8 lat. Trwają badania nad koniecznością odnowienia szczepienia po tym czasie. Szczepionka jest szczególnie zalecana kobietom, które planują terapie obniżające odporność, tym, które przeszły już dysplazję nabłonka szyjki macicy, a także dziewczętom w okresie pokwitania, które nie podjęły współżycia seksualnego. Niezależnie od tego, do której grupy się zaliczamy, szczepienie powinna poprzedzić konsultacja z lekarzem ginekologiem (www.gabinetginekologicznybialystok.pl).

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