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Leki przeciwhistaminowe w terapii alergii – jakie są najlepsze?

29Alergia jest spowodowana nadwrażliwością układu odpornościowego, co skutkuje niepożądaną reakcją na kontakt z alergenem. Rozróżniamy alergie pokarmowe i skórne, ale do najczęściej występujących zaliczają się alergie wziewne wywołane obecnością pyłków roślinnych w powietrzu. Objawy uczulenia łagodzą lub zupełnie niwelują leki przeciwhistaminowe. Jakie wybrać, aby zapewnić sobie komfort i dobre samopoczucie?

Rola histaminy w alergii

Za reakcje alergiczne odpowiada histamina, która jest organicznym związkiem chemicznym pośredniczącym w wielu procesach fizjologicznych. Znajduje się we wszystkich naszych narządach i tkankach. Jest niezbędna dla prawidłowego funkcjonowania organizmu, ale działa jako mediator stanów zapalnych, dlatego w momencie zetknięcia się z alergenem mobilizuje układ odpornościowy do działania, wywołują takie reakcje jak wysypka na skórze, obrzęk śluzówki nosa, katar, kichanie i łzawienie. W ciężkich przypadkach doprowadza do wstrząsu anafilaktycznego.

 

Na czym polega działanie leków przeciwhistaminowych?

 

W przypadku alergii wziewnej dochodzi do pobudzenia receptora histaminowego H1, który znajduje się m.in. w układzie oddechowym. Leki o działaniu przeciwhistaminowym wiążą się z nim. Oddziałując w sposób wybiórczy na wskazane receptory, ograniczają dolegliwości, a przede wszystkim wysięk z nosa, kichanie i swędzenie. Leki antyalergiczne powinny być stosowane już w momencie zaobserwowania pierwszych reakcji uczuleniowych i stosowane aż do ustąpienia objawów. Szybka reakcja zapobiega rozwojowi stanów zapalnych, które mogą prowadzić do astmy. Rezygnacja z leku z powodu jego słabego działania lub skutków ubocznych jest złym rozwiązaniem. Obecnie na rynku dostępnych jest wiele preparatów o wysokiej skuteczności. Jeśli jeden nie zapewnił oczekiwanych rezultatów, warto sięgnąć po inny.

 

Leki przeciwhistaminowe I generacji – działania niepożądane

 

Niechęć do leków przeciwhistaminowych może być wywołana działaniami niepożądanymi, ale należy mieć świadomość, że dotyczy to leków I generacji, które na szczęście są zastępowane lekami II generacji. Przede wszystkim leki I generacji nie powinny być stosowane przez kierowców ani przez osoby wykonujące prace wymagające skupienia. Nie są wskazane w przypadku wykonywania takich zawodów jak mechanik, pilot lub kontroler lotów. Wywołują zaburzenia pamięci i równowagi, wydłużają czas reakcji, ograniczają zdolność uczenia się, niekorzystnie oddziałują na poziom koncentracji i powodują senność.

 

Zalety leków przeciwhistaminowych II generacji

 

Obecnie zaleca się stosowanie leków przeciwhistaminowych II generacji, czego potwierdzenie można znaleźć na stronie http://www.alergia-allegra.pl/preparat_przeciwhistaminowy.html. Działają skutecznie, ale są o wiele bezpieczniejsze dla organizmu i nie wpływają negatywnie na codzienne funkcjonowanie lub powodują najwyżej nieznaczne odczuwanie dolegliwości. Dlatego osoby, które dotychczas obawiały się stosowania leków antyalergicznych ze względu na konsekwencje wiążące się z ich stosowaniem, powinny po nie sięgnąć dla zachowania zdrowia.

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